Thursday, January 13, 2011

Criteria for Student Classification

      a.       History (Some plans for Students)
b.      General Criteria for Student Classification
c.       Common Pattern
(a). History (Some Plans for Student Classification)
        i.            Background
      ii.            Winnetka Plan
    iii.            Unit Plan
    iv.            Techniques of Instruction
      v.            Summer School
    vi.            Grouping
  vii.            Non-Grading Elementary School
(i). Backgrounds
·         Purpose of the school is to serve the needs of the pupils
·         Administrator is to organize the school and classify the pupils to facilitate the achievement of this purpose
·         Division of the grades helped to solve the problems related to the textbook, facilities, materials and methods
·         New problem “Lock Step” system created
·         “Lock Step” means “Grade Standard” which created difficulties to meet the needs of the individual pupils
·         Administrator use different methods to adjust the students through different teachers, grades, or subjects etc
·         Administration needs to classify the pupil by keeping the view of individual differences
·         Many innovations in curriculum, teaching method & organization have been tried.
(ii). Winnetka Plan
·         Plan of individual instruction for elementary school children within the grade was inaugurated at Winnetka, Illinois.
·         Curriculum divided into two parts;

1.      Common essentials
2.      Group activities
1. Common Essentials
Ø  Knowledge 7 Skills are considered necessary elements for pupils( Division was into units or “Goals”)
Ø  Assignment sheets, work sheets, diagnostic practice test, and test for each unit were considered
Ø  Emphasis on each pupil to get mastery in each unit
Ø  Promotion to the next unit were provided until the mastery of the previous one
2.      Group Activities
Ø  Designed on part of the pupil
Ø  Activities like art & crafts, music, physical education for standard goals to be met
Ø  Activities provide socialism & creative experience
(iii). Unit Plan
·         It is a teaching procedure & requires no changes in school organization
·         Different methods are to be used like project, activity & problem assignment
·         All methods are of the distinct departures from the traditional subject matter recitation type of teaching
·         It has great influence in elementary schools by focusing upon the attention upon organization of the subject matter for the purpose of meeting the needs of the individual pupils
·         It has influence upon the curriculum being offered in many schools
(iv). Techniques of Instruction
·         Needs can be met through the changed curriculum but it also requires techniques of instruction
·         Few suggestions are related to the instruction to meet the individual needs are;
1.      Develop units on life problems rather than on abstract subject matter problems
2.      Teach to focus on the satisfaction of needs recognized by the learners
3.      Provide adequate counseling and guidance services
4.      Utilize more fully teaching resources such as films, radio, television, teaching machines and the local community environment
5.      Use wide variety of printed material
 (v). Summer School
·         Many school districts operated for adjusting the pupils
·         Operated primarily for those students who have failed or for those who wish to make additional credits in order to complete high schools in three years
·         Treated the failure students of regular terms in the school
·         Used to get measurable grade standard or subject if they are achieving before
·         Mostly emphasized on the subjects like music, arts, sports and games, but recently few more added like math, science and foreign languages
(vi). Grouping
·         Emphasis was given for chronological age grouping
·         Homogeneous grouping usually be done according to the mental abilities, or achievement in the subject matter
·         Mental abilities tested through different tests or teacher’s judgment
·         Great emphasis as given on the achievement of the subject matter
·         More preference was on the homogeneous grouping because instruction can be done effectively
Few arguments were for making homogeneous grouping;
·         Usually be taught by the same method
·         Saves the teacher’s time and energy
·         Subject may be covered in same period of time
·         Poor students are not discouraged
·         Specially trained teachers can be used for proper pupils
·         Homogeneous group can be taught as an individually
·         Brighter students are encouraged
·         Loafing on the part of superior pupil is reduced or eliminated
Some suggestions were against of the homogeneous grouping;
·         No basis for grouping has been developed which is sufficiently objective
·         Unwholesome competition may be engendered
·         People are not strictly grouped in their life occupations according to ability
·         Status distinctions, characteristics of the class society, may be fostered
·         Group can not be formed which are homogeneous in each curriculum area because abilities of the single student vary from subject to subject
·         No practical way has been found to group on the basis of special ability
·         Grouping according to the ability often cases jealousy and resentment (anger) on the part of the pupils and parents
(vii). Non-Graded Elementary School
·         It was the movement which was slowly gaining supporters
·         Classifying the students was attributed to the results of the child study movement which reveals that students differ in different way
·         It classified the students according to the levels rather than to the grade numbers
·         Levels usually based on reading abilities and consists of 10-12 levels in the first three grades
·         Pupils progress through the levels at their own rate without usual stigma (disagree)
·         Pupils may complete their work of three years in two or may take 4 years
·         Plans used extensively at primary grades
·         Provide three major organizational advantages in classifying students;
1.      A unit plan of ears that is adaptable to the lags and sports normally accompanying the development of child
2.      Progress levels that permit a child to pick up after an absence from school at the point where he previously left off
3.      A time range that permit children of approximately the same chronological age to remain together while progressing at different academic rates suited to individual capacities
(b). General Criteria for Student Classification
·         In the past teacher dealt all students of different ages and subject equally, but with the increase of population more teacher hired for then and children were divided into groups
·         Age was common selection factor
·         Age 1-12 handed over to one teacher and age 12- above handed over to the next teacher
·         As population grew then more classification be done
·         Major purpose for grouping is individualization
·         Classification was due to the individual differences, academic and social characteristics
·         Age was used originally for the selection of the candidates because it is correlated with social characteristics
·         When age selection factor came into use then student were being differentiated on the basis of their academic achievements which was named as homogeneous grouping, which based on the performance, reading readiness tests etc
·         Students were divided in two classrooms, one for those who achieved above the standard readiness score and those who were below of that
(c). Common Patterns
1.      Ungraded Grouping
2.      Inter- Classroom Subject Grouping
3.      Inter- Classroom Ability Grouping
4.      Split-half Grouping
5.      Intra-Classroom Ability Grouping
6.      Special Ability Grouping
7.      Inter-Classroom Individualized Grouping
1. Ungraded Grouping
·         Grade levels were abandoned (neglected)
·         There was no classification of the students in one classroom
·         Usually ungraded grouping were distinguished between lower elementary and upper elementary, upgraded primary & Upgraded intermediate
·         First three year schooling were assigned to ungraded primary then promotion was on the basis of age, social maturity, academic ability or some combination of factors
·         School might have three or more ungraded primary classrooms and teacher might stay with the same students for three years for knowing them
2. Inter-Classroom Subject Grouping
·         Grouping based on subject matter
·         Most common pattern in grouping junior and senior high schools
·         Used in elementary schools when teacher train them for different subjects
·         During the 2hr period teacher A has reading with class A for the first hour  and reading with the class B for second hour and teacher B follows the opposite schedule for mathematics
3. Inter- Classroom Ability Grouping
·         Classification based on their performance in intelligence and achievement tests
·         Those scoring from grade level or higher are assigned to one classroom while all those scoring from grade level or below are assigned to another
·         A higher school might use placement tests for assigning English or Mathematics courses or even totally different tracks
·         Assignment may be for one day or for the subjects, or to pull the disabled readers from their classes for instruction
4. Split- Half Grouping
·         Students were divided into split half day schedule for reducing the class size for critical subjects
·         Commonly used in the primary grades means when half of the class receives instruction for few hours and then 2nd class will receive instruction after that time
5. Intra-Classroom Ability Grouping
·         Students are to be classified on the basis of their abilities
·         Pattern is mostly common in reading when they are given reading achievement tests and then do grouping as per their level as high group, middle group and low group.
·         This ability had been used at all grads from kindergarten through high schools
6. Special Ability Grouping
·         Students are assigned for short period
·         Promotion is to be done on their ability
·         Teacher uses remedial instruction for half an hour below a certain reading level and an enrichment teacher might work with students above a certain level
7. Intra- Classroom Individualized Grouping
·         One time instruction for one pupil
·         Reading programmes called “Individualized Reading” follow this pattern
·         This pattern has become popular for the last 10 years because of the availability of published, sub-instructional material
·         The best use of the continuous progress selecting students into individual group varies widely and sometimes name is used , student just work alone
Need for Classification
More than a million species of living organisms have been discovered and described so far and a large number of them are yet to be discovered. Scientists involved in this task, called taxonomists, estimate that there may be around 30 million species of living organisms of which the known number of species forms a very small percentage.
Any systematic study on a given plant or animal can be made easier only when the organism is identified as one belonging to a particular group that has some specific characters. The vast number of plant and animal species that have been identified and described, exhibit a great deal of variation in their form, structure, mode of life and various other aspects. Unless the plants and animals are divided into discrete groups based on the differences and similarities between them, it becomes practically impossible to study them.
The scientific practice of identifying, naming and grouping of living organisms is called classification. The branches of biology that deal with classification are called taxonomy and systematic. Taxonomy, as the name indicates, deals with describing and naming organisms while systematic deals with grouping and arranging the described taxa into a hierarchical classification.
Advantages of Biological Classification
The scientific grouping of organisms has some specific advantages.
  • It makes the study of living organisms convenient.
  • It helps in the specific identification of any given organism.
  • The study of a few representatives from each distinct group helps us to integrate the idea of life as a whole.
  • It reveals the relationships among various groups of organisms.
  • It provides information about plants and animals, which occur in specific geographical regions.
  • It indicates the evolutionary relationship by establishing the gradually increasing complexity of form and structure in different groups of organisms.

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